Health Effects

Health Effects Resources

AWWA Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) Fact Sheets

SMCLs and Ammonia: What Every Operator Should Know 

Utilities are not required to test for ammonia, but this contaminant can cause many water quality issues if not properly treated (e.g., nitrification, chlorine demand and corrosion). Ammonia often occurs in sources with others subject to Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs), and many systems are under pressure to provide treatment. In order to provide utilities, and particularly small systems, with an overview of the state of the science for SMCLs and ammonia treatment, the AWWA Inorganics and Inorganic Contaminants Research Committees Project Team created two informative documents from funding by the AWWA Technical & Education Council. 



Health Effects Essentials




U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 

Health Canada

Environment Canada

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

Centers for Disease and Control Prevention (CDC)

World Health Organization (WHO)

El Paso County Health 




National Water Quality Monitoring Council